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Classification surfactant

Jun 14, 2016

There are many classifications ofsurfactants, Classified according to the source of the surfactant, thesurfactant is generally divided into synthetic surfactants, natural surfactantsand biosurfactants three categories.

Synthetic surfactants

Synthetic surfactants refers to oil,natural gas as raw materials, synthetic surfactants prepared by chemical means.Differences in the nature of the surfactant, in addition to the size and shapeof hydrocarbon related, mainly with hydrophilic group type. General structuralhydrophilic groups as the basis for classification, according to whether thecharged hydrophilic group surfactant can be divided into ionic and non-ionictwo categories, Wherein the ionic surfactant is further divided into cationicsurfactants, anionic surfactants and zwitterionic surfactants.

Natural surfactants

The oil crisis of the 1970s on thesurfactant industry as the basic raw material of oil has had a huge impact, causepeople to think about energy consumption, the production process technology,ecology and petroleum products and a series of safety problems, which led tomajor changes in natural oils as raw materials to produce surfactants. Becauseof improved biological application of new technologies, development of oilseparation and purification technology, plant varieties and oil production, Makinga lot of access to lower prices of high purity natural oil made possible thedevelopment of new antioxidants successfully solved the problem of natural oilsspoilage, Coupled with the improvement of people's safety and environmentalawareness, development of natural surfactant to oil as raw material arousedgreat attention. Natural oils currently the most attention to the number ofpalm oil and palm kernel oil.


Biosurfactants refers to compounds havingsurfactant characteristics by bacteria, yeast and fungi, and othermicroorganisms. Microbial production of surfactants is a new subject ofinternational bio-engineering the late 1970s in the field of research. Preparationof microbial biosurfactants can get a lot of difficult to synthesize chemicallyproduct, introduced in the structure of the new chemical group, and theobtained product is completely biodegradable easy, non-toxic, ecologicallysafe. Biosurfactants can be divided into glycolipids Department acylpeptide-based, phospholipid-based, fatty acid-based polymer and surfactant fivecategories depending on their hydrophilic group.

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