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Classification and Characteristics of Softeners

Dec 3, 2020

Softener is a kind of chemical substance that can change the static and dynamic friction coefficient of fiber, which can adsorb on the surface of textile fiber and smooth the fiber, so as to change the handle and make the product more comfortable. In order to let you have a better understanding of softeners, today we will introduce the classification and characteristics of softeners. Softeners can be classified in terms of their ionic properties and main components.Softener is a kind of chemical substance which can change the static and dynamic friction coefficient of fiber. When the static friction coefficient is changed, the handle is smooth and easy to move on the fiber or fabric; when the dynamic friction coefficient is changed, the micro structure between fibers is easy to move, that is, the fiber or fabric is easy to deform. The combination of the two is softness. Softeners can be divided into cationic, nonionic, anionic and amphoteric quaternary ammonium salts according to their ionic properties.

1. Classification from ionic property
(1) Anionic: it usually contains - COO - or - SO3 - groups. This kind of softener has a general softening effect, but it has good smoothness and cannot be used in the same bath with cationic dyes and chemicals
(2) Cationic type: usually quaternary ammonium salt, this kind of soft Jingrou soft effect is good, feel plump, a little less slippery. It can not be used in the same bath with anionic dyes and chemicals.
(3) Nonionic softener: usually containing - nhoh, - Oh, - CH2CH2O) NH or emulsified by emulsifier. The softening effect and smoothness of this kind of softeners are between that of anionic and cationic softeners. It can be used in the same bath with most dyes and chemicals.

2. Classification of main components
The main components of softeners are long chain fatty acid (saturated or unsaturated) derivatives and organosilicon.
(1) Fatty acid softeners
This kind of softener is usually a kind of surfactant, which is used earlier. The main synthetic materials are stearic acid, oleic acid and other long-chain fatty acids or esters, or polyethylene, which are prepared by introducing water-soluble groups or emulsifying and dispersing agents. After finishing with this kind of softener, the handle is generally thick.
(2) Silicone softener
It is usually synthesized from octamethylcyclosiloxane (D4), which is emulsified and dispersed in aqueous solution by emulsifier. Up to now, there are many kinds of products developed, such as methyl silicone oil, hydrogen containing silicone oil, hydroxyl silicone oil, amino silicone oil, epoxy modified silicone oil, etc. The softness and smoothness of the fabric treated with this kind of softener are significantly improved.
(3) The mixture of fatty acids and organosilicon

Fatty acid softeners have the advantages of simple synthesis, low price and full handle, but they are usually not smooth enough. Silicone softeners can improve the smoothness of fabrics, so manufacturers often add 10-50% silicone into fatty acid softeners. At present, the softener for middle and low gear shift is often this kind of product.

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